The extent to which we regard something as behaving in an intelligent manner is determined as much by our own state of mind and training as by the properties of the object under consideration. If we are able to explain and predict its behaviour or if there seems to be little underlying plan, we have little temptation to imagine intelligence.
James H. Moor
With the same object therefore it is possible that one man would consider it as intelligent and another would not; the second man would have found out the rules of its behaviour. It is possible to do a little experiment on these lines, even at the present state of knowledge. It is not difficult to devise a paper machine which will play a not very bad game of chess. Now get three men as subjects for the experiment A, B, C.
A and C are to be rather poor chess players, B is the operator who works the paper machine. In order that he should be able to work it fairly fast, it is advisable that he be both mathematician and chess player. Two rooms are used with some arrangement for communicating moves, and a game is played between C and either A or the paper machine. C may find it quite difficult to tell which he is playing. In each case Turing constructed and answered objections to this possibility, the objections in the paper forming a subset of those in the paper.
The computer-imitates-human game of the article is simply a version of the experiment that is unrestricted with respect to which questions may be put to the contestants. This is an externalist stance. This is not the trivial truth that a machine contestant cannot win an imitation game unless judged to win.
Otherwise it is very different.
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If intelligence is an emotional concept, then there is no observer-independent fact of the matter that an entity is intelligent, with respect to which we can gather weak or strong inductive evidence. Copeland, B. Oxford: Blackwell. Oxford University Press. French, R.
Millican and A. Trends in Cognitive Science 4 3 : Moor, J. In: Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence , Vol. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
The Turing Test: The Elusive Standard of Artificial Intelligence - Google книги
Dordrecht: Kluwer. Turing, A.
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National Physical Laboratory Report. Reproduced in Copeland ; page references are to Copeland Artificial intelligence is one of the most exciting new fields that scientists, computer specialists and technology architects are studying. The AI cannot be assigned to a specific domain as different actors contribute Mathematic, programming, psychology, neurology …etc. The Turing test is a test in which a man and a machine are interrogated by a person who tries to determine which is which .
Intelligence is different from knowledge, an information database as Wikipedia is a great source of knowledge that can easily pass the test of cognition but not the Turing test. In that test, some questions can be asked by the interrogator in order to determine definitely which is which . The questions that can be asked should be like the following ones:. Q1: What would you do if you were tired? Q2: Can I ask you 12 billions questions please?
Q3: How old are you? Q4: Do you prefer tea or coffee? Q5: What is your religion?
The Turing Test
A machine would have difficulties to answer these kinds of questions, as they are not related to an exact information and no algorithm can be implemented to allow a machine respond to them. A1: A machine should not be tired as the definition of tire is related to humans and not machines. Machines are supposed to work indefinitely. A2: Asking one or 12 billions questions is the same thing for a machine as it is supposed to answer an undefined number of questions.
A3: The definition of the age is the difference between today and the date of birth that can be the date in which a machine starts running, so if we ask this question to a machine it would respond something like 8 months, 14 days, 17 hours, 5 minutes and 7 seconds.